EB5 Visas

Blog, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology

The U.S. awards EB-5 investors Legal Permanent Resident (LPR) status.[1] EB-5 visas, also known as investor based visas, require that an investor from another country dedicate $1,000,000 to invest in a business in the United States. The investor may choose to invest in a rural areas with high unemployment known as a Target Employment Area(TEA). Investing in a Targed Employment Area reduces the minimum investment quota from $1,000,000 to $500,000.[2] As opposed to H1 and H2 visas which import raw labor and talent, EB-5 visa investments created 800,000 new jobs from 2012 to 2016. Many EB-5 investments fund infrastructure projects in the United States. EB-5 investments funded the expansion of a Baltimore Maritime Terminal and re station in Washington DC. The EB-5 program supplies investment in infrastructure.[3] 

Currently, the United States caps EB-5 visas at 10,000 investors per year.[4] A large backlog in EB-5 visa applications prevents investors from certain countries from coming to the United States. Most EB-5 investors come from China and India. A Chinese EB-5 investor would have to wait 70 years before the USCIS processes his application.[5] The $1 million minimum investment quota dissuades potential investors who do not want to invest that much. Even in Targeted Employment Areas, the $500,000 quota discourages many investors.Chinese investors have dominated the economies of Indonesia, the Phillipines, Thailand, and most of Southeast Asia.[6] Chinese ownership of US property necessarily displaces Americans. Could the EB-5 program lift real estate prices out of the reach of middle class Americans? EB-5 investment visas could attract Chinese billionaires to the United States.[7] Major Chinese tech firms are expanding into Malaysia and Singapore.[8] Could the United States become China’s newest economic colony? If Chinese were to come to the United States, could they put small businesses out of work?

Arguably, giving someone a visa costs taxpayers nothing. When a business investor comes into the United States on an EB-5 visa, he hires American workers.9 The program’s record proves it builds American infrastructure.

To entice more investors, the United States should remove its cap on EB-5 investor visas. Removing the cap would admit investors who can create jobs. Lowering the minimum investment quota would attract more investors with business ventures smaller than $500,000. The benefits of the EB-5 visa program outweigh the concerns of those who feel threatened. By creating jobs, the EB-5 program strengthens the US economy more than it threatens middle class Americans.

References

[1]Anusree Nair, 9-12-2016, “What You Need to Know About Residency Requirements,” EB5 Investors, https://www.eb5investors.com/magazine/article/what-you-need-to-know-about-residency-requirements

[2] Congress In, 3-23-2018, “About the EB-5 Visa Classification,” USCIS, https://www.uscis.gov/working-united-states/permanent-workers/employment-based-immigration-fth-preference-eb-5/about-eb-5-visa-classication

[3] Michael Halloran, founder and chief executive officer of NES Financial,”How our nation’s immigrants can fund American infrastructure,” http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/economy-budget/329953-how-our-nations-immigrants-can-help-fund-infrastructure

[4] Lucid Professional Writing, 7-17-2018, “EB-5 Statistics,” No Publication, https://blog.lucidtext.com/category/eb-5-statistics/

[5] Beth Mattson-Teig, Uncertainty is taking a toll on the EB-5 program, National Real Estate Investor, Freelance Business Writer with a specialty in commercial and real estate investment, http://www.nreionline.com/nance-investment/uncertainty-taking-toll-eb-5-program

[6] John Reed, 4-30-2018, “Who dominates the economies of south-east Asia?,” Financial Times https://www.ft.com/content/898fa38e-4882-11e8-8ee8-cae73aab7ccb

[7] Will Parker and David Jeans, 7-1-2018, “Is EB-5 coming apartat the seams?,” Real Deal New York, https://therealdeal.com/issues articles/is-eb-5-coming-apart-at-the-seams/

[8] Stratford’s Senior, 3-20-2018, “China’s Tech Giants Are Racing the West Into Southeast Asia,” Stratford, https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/chinas-tech-giants-are-racing-west-southeast-asia-asean-ecommerce-smartphone-

[9] Michael Halloran, 5-11-2017, “EB-5 visas attract foreign investment and create US jobs; the program needs reform, not the chopping block,” Quartz, https://qz.com/981924/kushner-companies-china-the-eb-5-visa-program-is-a-us-job-creator-that-needs-some-reform-so-why-is-it-on-the-chopping-block/

 

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What Happens to Matter Inside a Black Hole?

Blog, Eugene Toth, Math, Science and Technology

by Eugene Toth
October 2, 2016Black Hole.jpghttp://www.universetoday.com/33454/how-do-black-holes-form/

A galaxy swirls around a black hole

At the center of our galaxy, gasses, stars, and nebulae swirl around a supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A.1   

Stephen Hawking explained the proportion of matter in a black hole to the matter we know.

“…the black hole would have the mass of  a mountain compressed into less than a million millionth of an inch, the size of the nucleus of an atom!” 2

For the Earth to make a black hole, it would have to be squeezed to the size of a cranberry.

In A Brief History of Time, by Stephen Hawking (New York, Bantam Books 1988) and The Black Hole War by Leonard Susskind (New York:  Hachette, 2008), two famous physicists present differing theories of what happens to matter inside a black hole.  They consider what happens to matter sucked into a black hole.  Does it disappear?

No one disputes that black holes absorb matter.   Matter is anything that has a volume and mass.  Everything we see is matter.   Matter takes five forms – plasma, gas, liquid, solid, and Bose-Einstein condensate, the coldest form of matter. 

We see light.  Light travels in waves.  Light is also matter.   Photons are packets of light that travel in waves. 

Black objects absorb light.    The capacity to absorb light produces blackness.   We can only see a black object if some photons reflect off the object.   

Nothing can escape the horizon of a black hole.   In contrast to other black objects, black holes absorb all photons.   That no light comes out of the horizon, makes the area inside the horizon black.  In space we see a huge gaping hole.  We can see only the horizon of a black hole.  Nothing inside a black hole can ever communicate with anything outside of it.  Of what is inside a black hole, physicists can only theorize.

black-hole-diagram

At the center of the horizon lies the              singularity of a black hole.    http://www.wall.org/~aron/horizon.htm

Evaporation and obliteration theory

Cambridge’s professor Stephen Hawking theorized that a black hole destroys all matter that passes the horizon.  Hawking said:

“When a black hole evaporates, the trapped bits of information disappear from our universe.  Information isn’t scrambled. It is irreversibly, and eternally, obliterated.”4

Theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Bill Unruh proved that black holes, just like any other pieces of matter, have a temperature.  If black holes have a temperature, then black holes radiate heat.   Hawking and Unruh called it “black body radiation.”  Hawking and Unruh reasoned that if black holes have a temperature, then black holes eventually evaporate. 

A black hole emits “Hawking radiation.”  At the surface of the event horizon a black hole creates antiparticles.  An antiparticle is counterpart of a particle.  The antiparticle of a quark an antiquark.  When a quark and an antiquark combine, they create a hadron.  The antiparticle counterpart of small particles make up the antiparticle counterparts of large particles.  For example, a neutron is made up of quarks.   Antiquarks make up antineutrons.  The destruction of a particle leaves a neutral particle and an antiparticle.  For example, the destruction of a proton leaves a neutron and a positron.

Antiparticles can also make up “anti-elements”.  For example, a positron, the opposite of an electron, and a proton make up the anti-hydrogen atom.  The anti-hydrogen atom has the same properties as a normal hydrogen atom.5

Hawking radiation consists of particles, like light.  Unlike light, however, Hawking radiation can escape a black hole.  So how does Hawking radiation escape a black hole?      At the event horizon, virtual pairs of particles separate.

Virtual pairs of particles comprise a particle and its antiparticle.  At the event horizon, one-half of a virtual pair of particles is inside the event horizon, while the other half is outside the event horizon.  The particle inside the horizon will be lost to the particle on the outside of the event horizon.  On the inside of the horizon, the singularity sucks in half of the virtual pair.   The half on the outside of the horizon escapes the black hole’s pull.  This decreases the mass of the black hole, causing the black hole to “evaporate”.6

hawkingteamu.png

“Soft hairs” form a halo around a black hole.                          http://phys.org/news/2016-06-hawking-team-soft-hair-theory.html

As a black hole evaporates, it grows hotter and smaller.  After a black hole reaches high temperatures, the black hole begins to release particles of high energy.  As the black hole gradually grows hotter and smaller, it continues to evaporate.  It grows smaller.  As it grows smaller, it grows hotter.   Physicists know almost nothing about black holes once black holes reach their last burst of evaporation. 

The Hawking theory that black holes evaporate contradicts Antoine Lavoisier’s Law of the Conservation of Mass.   In 1785, Lavoisier, in his Law of the Conservation of Mass, stated that matter cannot be created or destroyed.  

Lavoisier conducted many experiments, in closed vessels, in which the weight remained constant, within experimental error.  He produced reactions of tin or lead with oxygen.  He analyzed mercury calx (HgO).  With large burning lenses he focused the sun’s rays to reach high temperatures to produce chemical reactions.  With a large lens Lavoisier burned a diamond and show that it produced only CO2.

Black holes differ from other objects in space.  Black holes have an extremely strong gravitational pull.  Nevertheless, black holes should not contradict the Law of the Conservation of Mass.

Pocket universe theory

Particle physicist Leonard Susskind teaches at Stanford.  He considered but rejects a theory that inside the black hole, a piece of space breaks off and forms a universe, isolated from our perception of spacetime. 

One of the most trusted principles of physics states that information is never lost. 7    According to the pocket universe theory, information that falls into a black hole goes into a baby universe. According to the pocket universe theory, a black hole does not obliterate information.   A black hole stores the information in the pocket universe.    This theory solves the problem with Hawking’s theory, that information cannot be created or destroyed.  If a black hole evaporated, then the information in the pocket universe would become completely unobservable. 

The pocket universe theory fails because it requires a change of energy.   To create a pocket universe would require a change of energy.   A quantum fluctuation is a temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space.   Physicists Leonard Susskind, Thomas Banks, and Michael Peskin all agree that quantum fluctuations would transform into thermal fluctuations, changes in thermal energy.  Thermal fluctuations would almost instantaneously heat the universe to impossibly high temperatures. 

Wormholes

The pocket universe theory suffers a second problem.  The only way information could enter a pocket universe would be through a wormhole.  A wormhole is a theoretical passageway through space.  For example, the Einstein-Rosen Bridge is a passageway from one universe to the other through a singularity.   The singularity acts as a wormhole. John Archibald Wheeler, of John Hopkins University showed, by mathematics, that wormholes would open and closein so a short amount of time that nothing could pass through.   Susskind cites Wheeler’s wormhole as evidence that wormholes creating miniature universes would not be possible.

Information Vault Theory

Some speculate that black holes stop evaporating once they reach the Planck Mass.   The Planck mass is the combined mass of the number of particles in a Planck unit.  A Planck unit is the maximum allowed mass to contain one elementary charge.   The Planck mass is about 0.0217651 milligrams.   Physicists believe that once a black hole reaches this size, it stops evaporating.  It becomes an infinitely small information vault, containing all the information it absorbed.  This theory conforms to the Law of Conservation of Matter more than Hawking’s theory.  By the information vault theory, information is not destroyed. 

Susskind disagrees with the information vault theory.  He states that a particle containing potentially infinite amounts of information would have infinite entropy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy constantly increases.   Entropy is decay into disorder.  Water eroding a rock creates entropy.  An ice cube melting causes entropy.  Susskind defines entropy as:

“Entropy is a measure of the number of arrangements that conform to some specific recognizable criterion.”8

 According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, heat balances itself, by flowing into cold objects.  Heat raises the temperature of cold objects and lowers the temperature of hot objects until a system has a uniform temperature.  Infinitely entropic particles would cause a thermodynamic disaster. The infinite entropy caused by the information vaults would burn up the universe.

The bathtub option

entropy.jpg

                 Entropy                  http://www.michelecoscia.com/?p=1041

Susskind compares a black hole to a bathtub.  Susskind analogizes matter entering a black hole to drops of ink spilling into a bathtub of water.   Before an ink drop falls into the water, the ink drops are sharply defined.  One can easily differentiate between the ink and the water.  As the ink falls into the water, the ink drops dissolves.  The difference between ink and water blurs.  The water becomes cloudy.  Soon all that remains is a uniform tub of slightly gray water. 

If the inky water evaporates, the molecules of ink and water continue to exist.  They enter the air.  They scatter and separate from each other.  Susskind’s “bathtub option” edits Stephen Hawking’s theory to conform to the Law of Conservation of Matter. 

Conclusions

Both Hawking and Susskind believe that, at the center of a black hole, the singularity, along with all the other matter inside the black hole, eventually evaporates.   Hawking theorized that a black hole destroys and obliterates all matter which enters the horizon.   Susskind’s bathtub option predicts that the matter is scattered.  

FOOTNOTES

         1. Henderson, Mark “Astronomers confirm black hole at the heart of the Milky ‘Way'” London: Times Online. (December 9, 2008) (Accessed 10/2/2016).  “…[L]urking at the center of our galaxy is a supersized black hole with a Schwarzschild radius of about 100 million miles – about the size of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun.”  Susskind, Leonard The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics (New York: Hachette Book Group, 2008) p.32.

         2.  Hawking, Stephen A Brief History of Time (New York: Bantam Books, 1998). p 112

         3.   Susskind, Leonard The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics, supra, p.32   

         4.  Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics, supra, p. 185

         5.  Wikipedia, “Antiparticle,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiparticle

         6. Strassler, Matt “Virtual Particles, What are they?” https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/virtual-particles-what-are-they/

         7.  Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole Warsupra, p. 179 “Smaller than an atom, smaller than a quark, smaller even than a neutrino, the single bit may be the most fundamental building block.  Without any structure, the bit is just there, or not there. John Wheeler believed that all material objects are composed of bits of information.” The Black Hole War, supra, p.136

         8.  Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole War, supra, p. 131

BIBLIOGRAPHY

            Cain, Fraser, “How Do Black Holes Form?”  Universe Today http://www.universetoday.com/33454/how-do-black-holes-form/ (Dec. 23, 2015) (Accessed 10/2/16)

           Hawking, Stephen, A Brief History of Time (New York: Bantam Books, 1998).

           Henderson, Mark “Astronomers confirm black hole at the heart of the Milky ‘Way.'” London: Times Online. (December 9, 2008) (Accessed 10/2/2016)

            Strassler, Matt, “Virtual Particles, What are they?” https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/virtual-particles-what-are-they/.

           Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics ( New York:  Hachette Book Group, 2008).

            Wikipedia, “Antiparticle,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiparticle. (Accessed 10/2/2016).

            Yirka, Bob, “Hawking team updates soft hair theory to help solve black hole information paradox.” http://phys.org/news/2016-06-hawking-team-soft-hair-theory.html#jCpf. June 9. 2016 (Accessed 10/2/2016)

Roberto Devereux

Eugene Toth, Society, Uncategorized

by Eugene Toth

For the New York Metropolitan Opera’s March 24, 2016 gala opening of “Roberto Devereux,” the eyes of opera enthusiasts sparkled.  Not only was the performance a new production.   For the first time ever, on the 413th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth I’s death, the Met staged Gaetano Donizetti’s “Roberto Devereux”

Donizetti set several operas in Britain. After Anna Bolena and Maria Stuarda Roberto Devereux was Donizetti’s third opera about British Queens.  “Roberto Devereux,” depicts the golden age of Elizabeth’s reign and the Tudor era, when poetry, music and theater flowered.

In 1599, Roberto Devereux, a former lover of Elizabeth I, returned from an unsuccessful war in Ireland, to England.   The opera tells why Elizabeth I executed him for treason.

With historical detail, exquisite costumes invoked the splendor of the Elizabethan era.  In

his first appearance, Devereux wore a black overcoat with silver lining over black plate armor, based upon a 1590 Portrait by William Segar of  Roberto Devereux, Earl of Essex.

In the Metropolitan Opera’s new production, the stage wore no curtains.  Between two balconies, a wall approached and receded from the audience.  In different scenes the wall represented a palace of Elizabeth I, the Palace of the Duke of Nottingham, and the Tower of London.  At the sides, in two galleries, chorus members acted as an audience and witnesses focusing attention upon the four soloists – soprano Elizabeth, the mezzo soprano Sara, the tenor Robert Devereux, and baritone Duke of Nottingham.

Elizabeth I’s passion for her lover  Robert, Earl of Essex, drives the plot.  In scene 1, Elizabeth displayed the character of an imperious, fearsome, and proud monarch.  She held more power than anyone else in England.  Parliament sought to execute Essex as a rebel for treason.  The elderly Queen loved a younger man.  The Queen confided to Sara, a beautiful lady in waiting, that the Queen would pardon Devereux of the treason charges, if he still loved the Queen.

Devereux loved Sara.  Elizabeth had forced Sara to marry Devereux’s best friend and supporter, the Duke of Nottingham.   Trapped in a marriage she never wanted, Sara still loved Devereux.   At their secret meeting, a duet between Sara and  Devereux supplies one of the opera’s high points.   Delightful flute mirrored the intense love they shared.  Telling him to flee, that they must never meet again, Sara gave Devereux, as a token of her love, her blue shawl.

By order of the Queen, Sir Walter Raleigh arrested Devereux.  Raleigh discovered Sara’s blue scarf.  The scarf proved Devereux loved a woman.  Blind with rage and jealousy, Elizabeth signed Devereux’s death warrant.

Recognizing his wife’s scarf, the Duke of Nottingham, drunk in his palace, assaulted Sara with a knife and threw her about.  Devereux’s unwise passion for Sara turned against him his best supporters – the Queen and his former friend the Duke of Nottingham.

Still in love with Devereux, too late, the Queen canceled his execution.   Moments before the executioner chopped off Devereux’s head, she pardoned Devereux.  A cannon shot signaled his death.   The Queen saw visions of Devereux’s headless ghost and a bloody crown.

Elizabeth could not order Devereux to love her.  Even the greatest power meets limits. In the background of the stage statues symbolized Time and Death. Renouncing her throne, she exclaimed “Let James be King!”  A blast of the orchestra’s brass marked her death.

Setting a fast and thrilling pace, the Queen’s transforming feelings supply the opera’s dramatic tension.  Her love transformed into fury, regret, sorrow, remorse, despair, and finally madness.  Donizetti called this work, “the opera of emotions.”

 

Note: For pdf version, click here: Roberto Devereux PDF

On The Town

Authors, Eugene Toth, Miscellaneous, Society

by Eugene Toth, August 16, 2015

The Broadway play “On the Town” tells the story of three Navy sailors who found the loves of their lives in New York while they had 24 hours to explore the city.   Playful Chip wanted to see the sights.  Innocent Gabey wanted to enjoy a day.  Amorous Ozzie wanted to find a love in one night.

Their adventure started in the subway.  The three sailors saw a poster of the “Miss Turnstile” contest winner, the most beautiful woman who took the subway.  The moment he saw her picture, Gabey loved Ivy.  He searched for her in the places which the description under  the poster said she loved to go to.  Gabey found Ivy in Carnagie Hall.  There she practiced singing with her insane Russian singing tutor.  Ivy agreed to a date with Gabey.

1-Megan-Fairchild-and-Jackie-Hoffman-in-Broadways-ON-THE-TOWN-Photo-by-Joan-Marcus

In the middle of the city, Chip found Hildy, a plump taxi driver, trying to find a man.  Hildy immediately fell in love with Chip.  She took him to her apartment.

Ozzie found Claire de Lune, an anthropologist engaged to an indulgent fiancé.  Claire de Lune took Ozzie to her apartment, where she and her finance celebrated  before they announced their engagement at Diamond Eddie’s, an erotic club.  Whenever Claire’s husband caught Claire kissing and embracing Ozzie, Claire’s fiancé would sing “I understand.”

Screen Shot 2015-08-16 at 12.19.13 PMThe three sailors caroused in bars and clubs.  They loved their women.   Finally, in the morning, all bid each other goodbye.

 

“On the Town” portrays New York’s amazing diversity—a hedonist, Claire de Lune, an innocent classical artist, Ivy, the love-driven woman, Hildy.

The sounds of New York excite and stimulate us.  At Coney Island, we hear a circus theme.  The music conveys a circus of love and fun.

“On the Town” tells some jokes.  When the couples are riding the subway to Coney Island, Hildy, the taxi driver woman observed there were only 192 more stops until Coney Island.

Periodically, two women pass by, talking about one of the woman’s bosses. Each time they are more drunk than before.  With ridiculous Brooklyn accents, they gossip.

Woman 1:          So what did you say?

Woman 2:          So I said, I may be your secretary Mr. Gadolfin, but I can’t go that far.

Woman 1:          So what did he say?

Woman 2:          So I said, I cannot do that to Mrs. Gadolfin and all those other little Gadolfins.  So I just handed in my resignation and left the office. 

Woman 2:          Now lets get a beer and we can talk about things!

For enduring reasons, Broadway producers for decades have revived “On the Town.”  Two and a half hours of comedy highlight New York’s hilarity.  Three gamboling sailors show us New York’s fun and humor.

Giselle at the 75th Anniversary of ABT

Authors, Eugene Toth, Miscellaneous, Society

by Eugene Toth

Hiding his cape, hunting horn, and sword of a lord, Count Albrecht persuaded Giselle, a country girl, to love him.  Bursting on the scene, the hunter Hilarion showed Giselle the engraved sword of Albrecht.  Learning that Albrecht lied to her, Giselle lost her mind.  She died of a broken heart.

The Wilis

Wilis are ghosts of women who died of unrequited love.  Myrta, the queen of the wilis summoned them to initiate Giselle into their sisterhood.  Beside Giselle’s grave, eighteen wilis danced Hilarion, the hunter who loved Giselle and buried her, to death .

Below:Giselle protects Count Albrecht from the wilis.

www.metopera.org/_uploaded/image/spotlight/giselle2.jpg

lgiselle2

 

Myrta, queen of the wilis, condemned Count Albrecht to dance to death.  As a wili, Giselle protected Albrecht. She danced with him until four o’clock when wilis lose their power.  In a memorable scene, Russian dancer Vladimir Shklyarov, as Albrecht, vaulted into the air an amazing 36 times.

Love, death, and dancing

Dancing to the limits of endurance sets Giselle apart from other ballets. The essence of Giselle, extreme dancing, gives to this ballet authenticity.  Giselle is not a performance.  In Giselle, we see something realistic, dancing to the limits.

As a tale of dancing to death with the wilis, Giselle’s libretto by Theophile Gautier adds to the ballet’s success.  According to the playbill, Giselle is the oldest continually performed ballet. On May 23, 2015, the 75th Anniversary of the founding of American Ballet Theatre, the crowd glittered with stars.  Giselle suits the tastes of ballet’s professionals.  On her last dance as a principal dancer for ABT, Paloma Herrera on May 27, 2015 will dance Giselle.

To dance Giselle explores the limits of dancing.  By its single minded focus on ultimate dancing, Giselle has won success.  ABT’s performance proved Giselle’s power as one of the greatest ballets of all time.

Les Contes d’Hoffman, an evening with Offenbach

Authors, Blog, Eugene Toth, Society

by Eugene Toth

On February 28, 2015 the Metropolitan Opera presented Les Contes d’Hoffman, three short and striking operas by the composer Jacques Offenbach.

In 1819 Jacques Offenbach was born the son of a synagogue cantor in Cologne, Germany. The young Offenbach began his career as a virtuoso cellist. Until that time, most composers wrote long and complicated operas lasting several hours. Offenbach pioneered short operas, simple and easy to understand. He broadened the appeal of opera. Offenbach grew so famous that the Emperor Napoleon offered him French citizenship.

Fibonacci Sequence

Authors, Eugene Toth, Math, Miscellaneous, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

Fibonacci Numbers

by Eugene Toth

Fibonacci numbers are an amazing sequence of numbers which appear all throughout human history and throughout nature.  One may see fibonacci numbers in the great pyramid or a nautilus’ shell.  This amazing sequence of numbers have a simple pattern but a stunningly complex role in the world around us.

Pascal’s Triangle

Authors, Eugene Toth, Math, Miscellaneous, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

Pascal’s Triangle

by Eugene Toth

Mathematicians named Pascal’s triangle after the French mathematician Blaise Pascal.    Pascal’s triangle is a triangular graph.

In Pascal’s triangle each number is the sum of the two directly above it.  The numbers in each row are numbered beginning with 0 for the first row. Each number is positioned either to the left or to the right of the numbers in the rows above. The sum of the elements of a single row is twice the sum of the row preceding it.  A Pascal’s triangle can expand infinitely.

Newton’s Laws of Motion

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

Newton’s Laws of Motion

By Eugene Toth

Aristotle believed that everything had a natural state.  Water would stay in the hydrosphere.  It always flowed to the hydrosphere or water bodies.  Rocks fell to the geosphere or Earth.  Air entered the atmosphere or the rest of the air around us.  Fire rose in the form of smoke to a place above the atmosphere. People believed Aristotle’s theory until Galileo started studying physics.  Galileo’s studies of falling objects proved Aristotle wrong.  Then, in 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, or ,in English, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. People more commonly know Newton’s book as “The Principia.”

Sir Issac Newton

Sir Issac Newton Painted by Godfrey Kneller

Living on Water

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

By Eugene Toth

living on water

“Call me Ishmael. Some years ago–never mind how long precisely–having little or no money in my purse, and nothing particular to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world. It is a way I have of driving off the spleen and regulating the circulation.”

– Moby Dick, Herman Melville

In almost all places on Earth, we have been living in houses of all shapes and sizes.  We have built mobile homes and houseboats.  Many have ridiculed the idea of houseboats.  We have not developed houseboats as much as other forms of housing.

How to make Green Fire!

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

By Eugene Toth

                                                     WARNING!

Only persons 18 years old and older should perform this experiment. If you do not fit this criteria, you need adult supervision when performing this experiment. Perform this experiment outdoors in a fire safe area. Infinite Initiative disclaims responsibility for explosions, fire or any other damages.

Ever wanted to resemble a mad scientist?  Have you read the story of Dr. Frankenstein?  Have you ever wanted to produce green fire?  The spectacle of green fire will amaze and thrill.  In fact, green fire is no more dangerous than normal fire.

Vibratory Motion

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

Vibratory Motion

By Eugene Toth

Vibratory motion, or vibration differs from rotational motion and linear motion.  In vibration, motion progresses alternately changing direction at fixed intervals.

In the 6th century, the Greeks first studied vibration when they plucked the strings of instruments.   Pythagoras of Samos in Greece studied the relationship of vibrations to music.  People know Pythagoras of Samos better for discovering the Pythagorean Theorem (a2+b2=c2) in a triangle. The word vibration comes from the Latin word “vibrationis” for shaking.

Angular Momentum

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

By Eugene Toth

Rotation Inertia

Bodies that have rotation have rotational inertia.  They will continue to rotate around axis unless stopped by an outside force. For example, the Earth rotates around the Sun. Because of rotational inertia, astronauts are exceedingly careful to avoid getting into a spin.

Just as there are linear and rotational velocities, there are also linear and rotational accelerations.  As we use the Roman letter α for rotational velocity, we also use it for rotational acceleration.  Just as linear velocity is equal to angular velocity times the distance from the center of rotation. Therefore linear acceleration is equal to angular acceleration.

By the second law of motion, we know that force = mass x linear acceleration.  Let a represent angular velocity.  Let r represent rotation.  “τ” is the greek letter “tau.”  In our case, we will use it to symbolize “torque.” This formula gives us:

As you exert force on the pedal, the petal turns and the pedal and chain gains angular momentum

As you exert force on the pedal, the petal turns and the pedal and chain gains angular momentum

F = M r a

Force = Mass x Rotation x angular velocity

Force = mass x radius x alpha

Velocity

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized
 By Eugene Toth
What is Velocity?  Many think velocity is just a scientific name for speed.  They are partially right. Scientist define velocity as distance covered in unit time as in feet per second or miles per hour.
The Curve Between Force and Velocity.  As the force exerted on an object is decreased,

The curve of Force and Velocity. As the force exerted on an object is decreased, the velocity of the object is decreased.

If a ball rolls at 2 feet per second, it’s average velocity is two feet per second, and its average velocity is 2 feet per second. At any given moment, however, the object is going faster or slower. This can be expressed as a fraction

     2 Feet       OR     2 feet/1 second
1 Second

It is important to recognize that the numerator and and denominator are units and not numbers.

The average velocity is 4 feet per second after it has traveled two feet.

In the third second, it covers 18 feet with an average velocity of 6 feet per second.

France Advancing into the Future

Authors, Eugene Toth, Science and Technology, Uncategorized

By Eugene Toth

The New Yorker provided an excellent article about a hydrogen power plant that the government is building that will give almost infinite energy to anyone who uses power coming from it.  The power plant will be a vacuum filled with trillions of hydrogen atoms.  Then, the inside of the vacuum will heat up to enormous temperatures without melting the metal.  The extreme heat will create the hydrogen atoms to move.  This will make the hydrogen atoms fuse creating huge amounts of nuclear energy with only one millionth of normal nuclear energy’s nuclear waste.  This spare nuclear waste will be drained of its resources until it will basically not exist making the power plant, in some sense, have no energy waste at all.