Introduction to Gasses

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Chapter 4 Gas

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Powers of Pascal’s Triangle

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Pascal’s Triangle

One day a man’s boss needed help gambling.  The boss asked his employee how he could win in gambling.  This employee made Pascal’s Triangle.

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) studied mathematics, philosophy, and physics.  His father collected taxes in Rouen, France.  Pascal always loved creating calculators.  After 3 years, Pascal made 20 of the first calculators.  He called these calculators Pascalines.

Nevertheless, of all of Pascal’s discoveries and inventions, humanity most commonly remembers him for making Pascal’s Triangle.

Pascal’s triangle consists of a one on the first line, then two ones on the second line, then a one, a two, and a one on the third line.  Each line is formed of numbers which are the sum of the two numbers above it, as shown below.

Unknown

As you can see, each row is formed of numbers which are the sum of the two numbers diagonally on top of the number.  Pascal’s triangle continues forever, always containing increasingly large numbers.  The border of Pascal’s triangle is always one.

Powers of 11

1 = 1                                                                  110
11 = 11                                                              111
11 * 11 = 121                                                    112
11 * 11 * 11 = 1331                                          113
11 * 11 * 11 * 11 = 14641                               114
11 * 11 * 11 * 11 * 11 = 161051                     115
11 * 11 * 11 * 11 * 11 * 11 = 1771561           116

The zeroth row of Pascal’s triangle is one.  11is one.
The first row of Pascal’s triangle is one one, or 11.  11is one.
The second row of Pascal’s triangle is one two one, or 121.  112 is 121.

This pattern progresses until we get to the fifth row of Pascal’s Triangle.  The fifth row of Pascal’s triangle is one five ten ten five one, or 15,101,051.  115 is 161,051.  So does that mean that Pascal’s triangle only tells us the powers of 11 up to 114?  Of course not! One just has to know how to read Pascal’s Triangle.

1.jpgWhenever you have a two digit number produced by adding together the two numbers above it in Pascal’s triangle, you keep the unit digit and take all the digits after it and add it to the next number’s one’s digit.  For example, in the fifth row of Pascal’s triangle, you have:

1   5   10   10   5   1
Take the one in the first ten and carry it over to the next ten, you are left with:
1 5 11 0 5 1
then you take the tens digit one in 11 and carry it over to the leftmost 5. You get
1 6 1 0 5 1
11is 161,051.

This pattern works for every power of 11 greater than 4.  Lets try 116. The sixth row of Pascal’s Triangle is 1 6 15 20 15 6 1.

1 6 15 20 15 6 1
Take the one from the leftmost 15 and carry it over to the twenty.  You get:
1 6 15 21 5 6 1
Then take the 2 from the 21 and bring it over to the 15. You should now have:
1 6 17 1 5 6 1
Finally, take the 1 from the 17 and move it over to the 6.  You end up with:
1 7 7 1 5 6 1
11is 1771561

Now you know how to read the powers of 11 from Pascal’s Triangle!

Prime Numbers

In pascal’s triangle, the uppermost row is called the 0th row.  The second highest row is called the first row.  The leftmost number in each row is called the 0th number.  The second number to the left is called the first number.

Now examine the first number of each row.  If it is a prime number, then try dividing that number into each of the other numbers in that row except for the last number and the 0th number.  You should get a whole number for each answer.

Whenever the first number in a row is prime, all the preceding numbers except for the last one are multiples of that first number.  pascals2.jpg

Powers of 2

1 = 1                                                       20
2 = 2                                                      21
2 * 2 = 4                                               22
2 * 2 * 2 = 8                                        23
2 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 16                               24
2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 32                        25
2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 64                 26

The zeroth row of Pascal’s triangle consists of the number one.   2is 1.
The first row of Pascal’s triangle consists of 2 ones.  1 + 1 = 2.  2is 2
The second row of Pascal’s triangle consists of 2 ones and a two.  1 + 2 + 1 = 4. 2is 4.
The third row of Pascal’s triangle consists of 2 ones and 2 threes.  1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 8. 2is 8.

This pattern continues in Pascal’s triangle forever.

Hockey Sticks

Pick a number, any number.  That is, a number on Pascal’s triangle.  Then choose a diagonal direction going downwards.  Continue however many rows down you want.  On the last number, change the direction of the diagonal.  That number will be the sum of all the numbers in the first diagonal.  2.jpg

Diagonals

Triangular numbers are the number of units in an equilateral triangle.  In an equilateral triangle with a side length of 3, there are 6 units in the triangle.triang.dots.gif

The third diagonal going down on Pascal’s triangle contains all triangular numbers.

Counting numbers are positive integers such as 1, 2, 3, 4, &c.  The second row of Pascal’s triangle has every counting number.

Tetrahedral numbers are “numbers that can be represented that can be represented by a regular geometric arrangement of equally spaced points. Tetrahedral numbers correspond to placing discrete points in the configuration of a tetrahedron.”

 

Sources:

 

How Does Loss of Sleep Affect Your Brain?

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by Eugene Toth

Have you ever stayed awake late doing homework before a test the next day?   Beware!  A loss of sleep may harm your ability to think.

Young adults who lost sleep not only showed decreased cognitive function.  They also evidenced a reduction in physical activity.   People who lost sleep could not recognize certain emotions.[i]

In elderly persons, sleep deprivation causes cognitive aging.  Cognitive aging causes a deterioration of vocabulary, memory, general knowledge, and mathematics.  A reduction of these functions can signal the onset of dementia. [ii]  For an elderly person, loss of sleep reduces  “multiple domain performance, executive functions, verbal memory, and working memory capacity.” [iii]

prefrontal-cortex

Prefrontal Cortex[iv]

The frontal cortex control’s your brain’s highest functions.  The prefrontal cortex sits in front of the frontal cortex.   The prefrontal cortex controls less advanced thoughts.  When you lose sleep your prefrontal cortex loses some functioning.[v]

Irregular sleep wake patterns disrupt cognitive functions.

Sleep wake patterns measure the constancy of sleep.  If you go to sleep at 10:00 PM and wake up 4:00 AM on day one, then go to sleep at 7:00 PM and wake up at 10:00 AM on day two, your cognitive function may decrease.

To clean the brain’s waste, the brain needs cerebrospinal fluid or “CSF”.   Irregular sleep wake patterns and loss of sleep halt the cleaning of the brain’s waste. [vi] [vii]

Your body uses circadian rhythm, also known as the body clock, to wake up and go to sleep at regular times.   Artificial lighting and computer screens uncouple the sleep-wake cycle from natural light conditions. [viii]

Interrupting the circadian rhythm can cause stress and reduce cognitive function.[ix]

Extra sleep might boost your grades.

A gradual increase of sleep time benefits the brain.   Extending a person’s sleep schedule by 5 minutes each day improves their “abstract thinking and verbal creativity.” [x]  Before an exam, five minutes extra sleep may improve your score.

For sleeping, best to stick to a schedule.  Next time you plan to stay up late watching movies with your friends, consider how it may affect your performance in school the next day.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F., Oort, F.j., Meijer, A.M., (2013) “The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic reduction: An experimental study.” Sleep Medicine, 14, 510-517.

Duarte, J., Nelas, P., Chaves, C., Ferreira, M., Coutinho, E., Cunha, M., (2014) Sleep wake patterns and their influence on school performance in Portuguese adolescents. AtencionPrimaria, 46, 160 – 164.

Kato, K., Iwamoto, K., Kawano, N., Noda, Y., Ozaki, N., Noda, A., (2017) “Differential effects  of physical activity and sleep deprivation on cognitive function in young adults” Journal of Sport and Health Science xx p. 1-10.

Kilgore, W., Balkin, T., Yarnell, A., Capaldi, V., (2017) “Sleep deprivation impairs recognition of specific emotions” Neurobiology and Circadian Rhythms 3 p. 10-16.

Koch, C., Leinweber, B., Drengberg, B., Blaum, C., Oster, H., (2017) “Interaction with circadian rhythm and stress” Neurobiology of Stress 6 p.57 – 67.

 

Lo, J., Groeger, J., Cheng, G., Dijk, D., Chee, M., (2016) “Self-Reported sleep duration and cognitive performance in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis” Sleep Medicine 87 -98.

Spector, R., Snodgrass, S.R., Johanson, C.E., (2015) A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans. Experimental Neurology, 273, 57-68.

 

[i][i][i] Kilgore, W., Balkin, T., Yarnell, A., Capaldi, V., (2017) “Sleep deprivation impairs recognition of specific emotions” Neurobiology and Circadian Rhythms 3 p. 10-16

[ii] “What is cognitive ageing?” Retrieved from http://www.ccace.ed.ac.uk/about-us/what-we-do/what-is-cognitive-ageing on 2/19/2017

[iii] Lo, J., Groeger, J., Cheng, G., Dijk, D., Chee, M., (2016) “Self-Reported sleep duration and cognitive performance in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis” Sleep Medicine 87 -98

[iv] Chapman, S.B., (2013/1/23) Go Full Frontal to Be Smart Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/make-your-brain-smarter/201301/go-full-frontal-be-smart on 2/19/2017

[v] Kato, K., Iwamoto, K., Kawano, N., Noda, Y., Ozaki, N., Noda, A., (2017) “Differential effects  of physical activity and sleep deprivation on cognitive function in young adults” Journal of Sport and Health Science xx p. 1-10

[vi] Duarte, J., Nelas, P., Chaves, C., Ferreira, M., Coutinho, E., Cunha, M., (2014) Sleep wake patterns and their influence on school performance in Portuguese adolescents. AtencionPrimaria, 46, 160 – 164

[vii] Spector, R., Snodgrass, S.R., Johanson, C.E., (2015) A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans. Experimental Neurology, 273, 57-68.

[viii] Koch, C., Leinweber, B., Drengberg, B., Blaum, C., Oster, H., (2017) “Interaction with circadian rhythm and stress” Neurobiology of Stress 6 p.57 – 67

[ix] Id.

[x] Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F., Oort, F.j., Meijer, A.M., (2013) The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic reduction: An experimental study. Sleep Medicine, 14, 510-517

What Happens to Matter Inside a Black Hole?

Blog, Eugene Toth, Math, Science and Technology

by Eugene Toth
October 2, 2016Black Hole.jpghttp://www.universetoday.com/33454/how-do-black-holes-form/

A galaxy swirls around a black hole

At the center of our galaxy, gasses, stars, and nebulae swirl around a supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A.1   

Stephen Hawking explained the proportion of matter in a black hole to the matter we know.

“…the black hole would have the mass of  a mountain compressed into less than a million millionth of an inch, the size of the nucleus of an atom!” 2

For the Earth to make a black hole, it would have to be squeezed to the size of a cranberry.

In A Brief History of Time, by Stephen Hawking (New York, Bantam Books 1988) and The Black Hole War by Leonard Susskind (New York:  Hachette, 2008), two famous physicists present differing theories of what happens to matter inside a black hole.  They consider what happens to matter sucked into a black hole.  Does it disappear?

No one disputes that black holes absorb matter.   Matter is anything that has a volume and mass.  Everything we see is matter.   Matter takes five forms – plasma, gas, liquid, solid, and Bose-Einstein condensate, the coldest form of matter. 

We see light.  Light travels in waves.  Light is also matter.   Photons are packets of light that travel in waves. 

Black objects absorb light.    The capacity to absorb light produces blackness.   We can only see a black object if some photons reflect off the object.   

Nothing can escape the horizon of a black hole.   In contrast to other black objects, black holes absorb all photons.   That no light comes out of the horizon, makes the area inside the horizon black.  In space we see a huge gaping hole.  We can see only the horizon of a black hole.  Nothing inside a black hole can ever communicate with anything outside of it.  Of what is inside a black hole, physicists can only theorize.

black-hole-diagram

At the center of the horizon lies the              singularity of a black hole.    http://www.wall.org/~aron/horizon.htm

Evaporation and obliteration theory

Cambridge’s professor Stephen Hawking theorized that a black hole destroys all matter that passes the horizon.  Hawking said:

“When a black hole evaporates, the trapped bits of information disappear from our universe.  Information isn’t scrambled. It is irreversibly, and eternally, obliterated.”4

Theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Bill Unruh proved that black holes, just like any other pieces of matter, have a temperature.  If black holes have a temperature, then black holes radiate heat.   Hawking and Unruh called it “black body radiation.”  Hawking and Unruh reasoned that if black holes have a temperature, then black holes eventually evaporate. 

A black hole emits “Hawking radiation.”  At the surface of the event horizon a black hole creates antiparticles.  An antiparticle is counterpart of a particle.  The antiparticle of a quark an antiquark.  When a quark and an antiquark combine, they create a hadron.  The antiparticle counterpart of small particles make up the antiparticle counterparts of large particles.  For example, a neutron is made up of quarks.   Antiquarks make up antineutrons.  The destruction of a particle leaves a neutral particle and an antiparticle.  For example, the destruction of a proton leaves a neutron and a positron.

Antiparticles can also make up “anti-elements”.  For example, a positron, the opposite of an electron, and a proton make up the anti-hydrogen atom.  The anti-hydrogen atom has the same properties as a normal hydrogen atom.5

Hawking radiation consists of particles, like light.  Unlike light, however, Hawking radiation can escape a black hole.  So how does Hawking radiation escape a black hole?      At the event horizon, virtual pairs of particles separate.

Virtual pairs of particles comprise a particle and its antiparticle.  At the event horizon, one-half of a virtual pair of particles is inside the event horizon, while the other half is outside the event horizon.  The particle inside the horizon will be lost to the particle on the outside of the event horizon.  On the inside of the horizon, the singularity sucks in half of the virtual pair.   The half on the outside of the horizon escapes the black hole’s pull.  This decreases the mass of the black hole, causing the black hole to “evaporate”.6

hawkingteamu.png

“Soft hairs” form a halo around a black hole.                          http://phys.org/news/2016-06-hawking-team-soft-hair-theory.html

As a black hole evaporates, it grows hotter and smaller.  After a black hole reaches high temperatures, the black hole begins to release particles of high energy.  As the black hole gradually grows hotter and smaller, it continues to evaporate.  It grows smaller.  As it grows smaller, it grows hotter.   Physicists know almost nothing about black holes once black holes reach their last burst of evaporation. 

The Hawking theory that black holes evaporate contradicts Antoine Lavoisier’s Law of the Conservation of Mass.   In 1785, Lavoisier, in his Law of the Conservation of Mass, stated that matter cannot be created or destroyed.  

Lavoisier conducted many experiments, in closed vessels, in which the weight remained constant, within experimental error.  He produced reactions of tin or lead with oxygen.  He analyzed mercury calx (HgO).  With large burning lenses he focused the sun’s rays to reach high temperatures to produce chemical reactions.  With a large lens Lavoisier burned a diamond and show that it produced only CO2.

Black holes differ from other objects in space.  Black holes have an extremely strong gravitational pull.  Nevertheless, black holes should not contradict the Law of the Conservation of Mass.

Pocket universe theory

Particle physicist Leonard Susskind teaches at Stanford.  He considered but rejects a theory that inside the black hole, a piece of space breaks off and forms a universe, isolated from our perception of spacetime. 

One of the most trusted principles of physics states that information is never lost. 7    According to the pocket universe theory, information that falls into a black hole goes into a baby universe. According to the pocket universe theory, a black hole does not obliterate information.   A black hole stores the information in the pocket universe.    This theory solves the problem with Hawking’s theory, that information cannot be created or destroyed.  If a black hole evaporated, then the information in the pocket universe would become completely unobservable. 

The pocket universe theory fails because it requires a change of energy.   To create a pocket universe would require a change of energy.   A quantum fluctuation is a temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space.   Physicists Leonard Susskind, Thomas Banks, and Michael Peskin all agree that quantum fluctuations would transform into thermal fluctuations, changes in thermal energy.  Thermal fluctuations would almost instantaneously heat the universe to impossibly high temperatures. 

Wormholes

The pocket universe theory suffers a second problem.  The only way information could enter a pocket universe would be through a wormhole.  A wormhole is a theoretical passageway through space.  For example, the Einstein-Rosen Bridge is a passageway from one universe to the other through a singularity.   The singularity acts as a wormhole. John Archibald Wheeler, of John Hopkins University showed, by mathematics, that wormholes would open and closein so a short amount of time that nothing could pass through.   Susskind cites Wheeler’s wormhole as evidence that wormholes creating miniature universes would not be possible.

Information Vault Theory

Some speculate that black holes stop evaporating once they reach the Planck Mass.   The Planck mass is the combined mass of the number of particles in a Planck unit.  A Planck unit is the maximum allowed mass to contain one elementary charge.   The Planck mass is about 0.0217651 milligrams.   Physicists believe that once a black hole reaches this size, it stops evaporating.  It becomes an infinitely small information vault, containing all the information it absorbed.  This theory conforms to the Law of Conservation of Matter more than Hawking’s theory.  By the information vault theory, information is not destroyed. 

Susskind disagrees with the information vault theory.  He states that a particle containing potentially infinite amounts of information would have infinite entropy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy constantly increases.   Entropy is decay into disorder.  Water eroding a rock creates entropy.  An ice cube melting causes entropy.  Susskind defines entropy as:

“Entropy is a measure of the number of arrangements that conform to some specific recognizable criterion.”8

 According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, heat balances itself, by flowing into cold objects.  Heat raises the temperature of cold objects and lowers the temperature of hot objects until a system has a uniform temperature.  Infinitely entropic particles would cause a thermodynamic disaster. The infinite entropy caused by the information vaults would burn up the universe.

The bathtub option

entropy.jpg

                 Entropy                  http://www.michelecoscia.com/?p=1041

Susskind compares a black hole to a bathtub.  Susskind analogizes matter entering a black hole to drops of ink spilling into a bathtub of water.   Before an ink drop falls into the water, the ink drops are sharply defined.  One can easily differentiate between the ink and the water.  As the ink falls into the water, the ink drops dissolves.  The difference between ink and water blurs.  The water becomes cloudy.  Soon all that remains is a uniform tub of slightly gray water. 

If the inky water evaporates, the molecules of ink and water continue to exist.  They enter the air.  They scatter and separate from each other.  Susskind’s “bathtub option” edits Stephen Hawking’s theory to conform to the Law of Conservation of Matter. 

Conclusions

Both Hawking and Susskind believe that, at the center of a black hole, the singularity, along with all the other matter inside the black hole, eventually evaporates.   Hawking theorized that a black hole destroys and obliterates all matter which enters the horizon.   Susskind’s bathtub option predicts that the matter is scattered.  

FOOTNOTES

         1. Henderson, Mark “Astronomers confirm black hole at the heart of the Milky ‘Way'” London: Times Online. (December 9, 2008) (Accessed 10/2/2016).  “…[L]urking at the center of our galaxy is a supersized black hole with a Schwarzschild radius of about 100 million miles – about the size of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun.”  Susskind, Leonard The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics (New York: Hachette Book Group, 2008) p.32.

         2.  Hawking, Stephen A Brief History of Time (New York: Bantam Books, 1998). p 112

         3.   Susskind, Leonard The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics, supra, p.32   

         4.  Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics, supra, p. 185

         5.  Wikipedia, “Antiparticle,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiparticle

         6. Strassler, Matt “Virtual Particles, What are they?” https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/virtual-particles-what-are-they/

         7.  Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole Warsupra, p. 179 “Smaller than an atom, smaller than a quark, smaller even than a neutrino, the single bit may be the most fundamental building block.  Without any structure, the bit is just there, or not there. John Wheeler believed that all material objects are composed of bits of information.” The Black Hole War, supra, p.136

         8.  Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole War, supra, p. 131

BIBLIOGRAPHY

            Cain, Fraser, “How Do Black Holes Form?”  Universe Today http://www.universetoday.com/33454/how-do-black-holes-form/ (Dec. 23, 2015) (Accessed 10/2/16)

           Hawking, Stephen, A Brief History of Time (New York: Bantam Books, 1998).

           Henderson, Mark “Astronomers confirm black hole at the heart of the Milky ‘Way.'” London: Times Online. (December 9, 2008) (Accessed 10/2/2016)

            Strassler, Matt, “Virtual Particles, What are they?” https://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/virtual-particles-what-are-they/.

           Susskind, Leonard, The Black Hole War, My Battle with Stephen Hawking to make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics ( New York:  Hachette Book Group, 2008).

            Wikipedia, “Antiparticle,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiparticle. (Accessed 10/2/2016).

            Yirka, Bob, “Hawking team updates soft hair theory to help solve black hole information paradox.” http://phys.org/news/2016-06-hawking-team-soft-hair-theory.html#jCpf. June 9. 2016 (Accessed 10/2/2016)

In the Heart of the Sea – Review

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by Eugene Toth
October 2, 2016

On February 18, 1820, a British whaler, the Indian, spotted a whale boat drifting in the Pacific.  In that boat First Mate Owen Chase of the Essex, Benjamin Lawrence, a harpooner, and cabin boy Thomas Nickerson had survived at sea for 89 days.   Five days later, another whale ship, the Dauphin spotted and rescued Captain George Pollard and Charles Ramsdell.

Image result for Smashing of the ship essex by a whale

Smashing of the Essex

http://uk.whales.org/wdc-in-action/lecture-series-whales-in-heart-of-sea

Gradually reports traveled worldwide.  A whale had sunk the whale ship Essex.  Sailors had seen incidents of whales accidentally bumping cargo ships.  No one had heard before of a whale intentionally attacking a ship.

In 1821, First Mate Chase published Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the Whale-Ship Essex.   In 1960, someone discovered in a New York attic the account of cabin boy Thomas Nickerson.  In 1980 someone identified Nickerson’s writing as an account of the Essex.  Nickerson’s record supplied new evidence for Author Nathaniel Philbrick to weave his story. In the Heart of the Sea, by Nathan Philbrick, tells the grim tale of the survivors of the Essex.

In the 19th century, the boiling of whale blubber provided oil for lamps.  A global whaling industry centered on the island of Nantucket.  Only 7000 people, mainly Quakers, lived in Nantucket.   The Nantucketers termed outsiders “off –Islanders.”   From Nantucket, in 1819, the owners of the Essex sent out an old ship on what they planned as a final two year voyage.

Image result for In the Heart of the sea book cover

 

15 months later, a huge white sperm whale hit the Essex at a speed of 24 knots, twice a sperm whale’s normal speed.   If the whale hit the hull from the front head on, the whale might have broken its skull.  Somehow this whale knew how to hit the Essex in the right place, sinking the ship without killing the whale.

The buoyancy of whale boats kept them on top of the waves.  When the whale sank the Essex, two boats had been hunting whales.   After the Essex sank, a third whaleboat resurfaced.  For 21 survivors, bobbing in the swells of the Pacific Ocean, the sinking of the Essex began a struggle for survival.  Captain Pollard, First Mate Chase, and Second Mate Matthew Joy each commanded a boat.  Only the boats of Pollard and Chase reached safety.   The third boat, vanished in the sea.

The Essex sank about 1000 miles from the Marquesas and Society Islands.  The crew of the Essex feared “savages” or cannibals more than they feared the open ocean.  Instead of the closest land, the captain, first and second mates chose instead to sail towards South America, 2000 miles to the east.

Halfway into their voyage, the three whaleboats landed on Henderson Island, one of the Pitcairn Islands.  The survivors  of the Essex found a spring, some crabs and birds.  The 20 survivors quickly exhausted most of the island’s resources.  Three sailors not from Nantucket, “off –Islanders,” opted to stay on Henderson Island.  The three were later rescued.  The rest of the crew continued sailing towards South America.

Most people feel hungry if we don’t eat one or two meals a day.  The crew of the Essex ate less than the calories in one Big Mac Hamburger per day.  They ate hardtack and Galapagos tortoises.   Hardtack, a mixture of flour and water, provided carbohydrates.  The food they ate provided little nutrition.  When it rained, salty water would make the bread salty.  The salt made the sailors thirstier than before.  They drank what little water they had, and their own urine.  Eventually they ate each other.  The sailors’ bodies lacked digestive fluids.  In their weakened state, human meat provided almost no nutritional value.

The “off islanders” died first.  Eventually only Nantucketers remained.  On Captain Pollard’s boat, following a tradition of the sea, Charles Ramsdell suggested the sailors draw lots.  19 year old Owen Coffin drew the black spot.  He was Captain Pollard’s nephew and Charles Ramsdell’s best friend.  Ramsdell drew the lot to shoot Coffin.  Ready to die, the boy placed his head on the side of the ship for Ramsdell to shoot him.  Ramsdell ate his best friend.  Pollard ate his own nephew.

When the Dauphin found Pollard and Ramsdell, the rescuers saw a horrifying scene:

“First they saw bones – human bones – littering the thwarts and floorboards, as if the whaleboat were the seagoing lair of a ferocious, man-eating beast.  Then they saw the two men.  They were curled up in opposite ends of the boat, their skin covered with sores, their eyes bulging from the hollows of their skulls, their beards caked with salt and blood.  They were sucking the marrow from the bones of their dead shipmates.

Instead of greeting their rescuers with smiles of relief, the survivors –too delirious with thirst and hunger to speak – were disturbed, even frightened.  They jealously clutched the splintered and gnawed-over bones with a desperate, almost feral intensity, refusing to give them up, like two starving dogs found trapped in a pit.” 1

Image result for Ahab fights moby dick

Ahab fights Moby Dick

http://beattiesbookblog.blogspot.com/2012/04/top-10-literary-feuds.html

As a member of the crew of the whale ship Acushnet, Melville met the son of Owen Chase. Chase’s son loaned to Melville a copy of Chase’s account of the Essex and its survivors.  The facts of the Essex, including cannibalism, overshadowed Moby Dick.

In Moby Dick, Melville’s narrator Ishmael is an outsider.  With a distant and scornful eye, he observed the Pequod’s crew drawn from every corner of the Earth.   In the Bible, King Ahab worshipped false gods.  The prophet Elijah foretold that dogs would lick Ahab’s blood.   On the Pequod, Ahab was mad.  Ahab’s crew followed his madness.

 

Image result for Captain Nemo sees an octopus drawing

Captain Nemo observes

Jules Verne’s 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, begins with reports of a sea monster sinking ships.  Verne knew the tale of the Essex.  Captain Nemo of the Nautilus abandoned land.  He lived in and under the sea.  There he found unlimited treasure.  He defied earthly governments. Nemo resembled a whale.

In tiny whale boats, with harpoons and ropes, the crew of the Essex hunted nature’s largest beasts.  That a whale sank their ship seems mythical and symbolic. The situation of these forlorn, helpless men, lost in the Pacific,  forced them to make hard and fateful choices.  Extreme conditions lay bare human nature.

The men of the Essex were not heroes, like Odysseus.  Their catastrophe concerned common men.  The tale of the Essex transcends its survivors.  For writers, the events of the Essex have raised questions about the relations of men with each other and the relationship between men and the sea.

Footnotes:

  1. Philbrick, Nathaniel, In the Heart of the Sea (New York, Penguin Books 2001) p. xii

Bibliography

Beattie, Graham, “From Paradise Lost to Blood Meridian, the Canadian Writer Michael Crummey picks his favourite tales of bickering and brawl.” http://beattiesbookblog.blogspot.com/2012/04/top-10-literary-feuds.html (Beatty’s Book Blog April 5, 2012) (Accessed 10/2/2016).

Philbrick, Nathaniel, In the Heart of the Sea (New York, Penguin Books 2001) p. xii

Lecture Series: Whales In the Heart of the Sea, http://uk.whales.org/wdc-in-action/lecture-series-whales-in-heart-of-sea (Accessed 10/2/2016).

Roberto Devereux

Eugene Toth, Society, Uncategorized

by Eugene Toth

For the New York Metropolitan Opera’s March 24, 2016 gala opening of “Roberto Devereux,” the eyes of opera enthusiasts sparkled.  Not only was the performance a new production.   For the first time ever, on the 413th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth I’s death, the Met staged Gaetano Donizetti’s “Roberto Devereux”

Donizetti set several operas in Britain. After Anna Bolena and Maria Stuarda Roberto Devereux was Donizetti’s third opera about British Queens.  “Roberto Devereux,” depicts the golden age of Elizabeth’s reign and the Tudor era, when poetry, music and theater flowered.

In 1599, Roberto Devereux, a former lover of Elizabeth I, returned from an unsuccessful war in Ireland, to England.   The opera tells why Elizabeth I executed him for treason.

With historical detail, exquisite costumes invoked the splendor of the Elizabethan era.  In

his first appearance, Devereux wore a black overcoat with silver lining over black plate armor, based upon a 1590 Portrait by William Segar of  Roberto Devereux, Earl of Essex.

In the Metropolitan Opera’s new production, the stage wore no curtains.  Between two balconies, a wall approached and receded from the audience.  In different scenes the wall represented a palace of Elizabeth I, the Palace of the Duke of Nottingham, and the Tower of London.  At the sides, in two galleries, chorus members acted as an audience and witnesses focusing attention upon the four soloists – soprano Elizabeth, the mezzo soprano Sara, the tenor Robert Devereux, and baritone Duke of Nottingham.

Elizabeth I’s passion for her lover  Robert, Earl of Essex, drives the plot.  In scene 1, Elizabeth displayed the character of an imperious, fearsome, and proud monarch.  She held more power than anyone else in England.  Parliament sought to execute Essex as a rebel for treason.  The elderly Queen loved a younger man.  The Queen confided to Sara, a beautiful lady in waiting, that the Queen would pardon Devereux of the treason charges, if he still loved the Queen.

Devereux loved Sara.  Elizabeth had forced Sara to marry Devereux’s best friend and supporter, the Duke of Nottingham.   Trapped in a marriage she never wanted, Sara still loved Devereux.   At their secret meeting, a duet between Sara and  Devereux supplies one of the opera’s high points.   Delightful flute mirrored the intense love they shared.  Telling him to flee, that they must never meet again, Sara gave Devereux, as a token of her love, her blue shawl.

By order of the Queen, Sir Walter Raleigh arrested Devereux.  Raleigh discovered Sara’s blue scarf.  The scarf proved Devereux loved a woman.  Blind with rage and jealousy, Elizabeth signed Devereux’s death warrant.

Recognizing his wife’s scarf, the Duke of Nottingham, drunk in his palace, assaulted Sara with a knife and threw her about.  Devereux’s unwise passion for Sara turned against him his best supporters – the Queen and his former friend the Duke of Nottingham.

Still in love with Devereux, too late, the Queen canceled his execution.   Moments before the executioner chopped off Devereux’s head, she pardoned Devereux.  A cannon shot signaled his death.   The Queen saw visions of Devereux’s headless ghost and a bloody crown.

Elizabeth could not order Devereux to love her.  Even the greatest power meets limits. In the background of the stage statues symbolized Time and Death. Renouncing her throne, she exclaimed “Let James be King!”  A blast of the orchestra’s brass marked her death.

Setting a fast and thrilling pace, the Queen’s transforming feelings supply the opera’s dramatic tension.  Her love transformed into fury, regret, sorrow, remorse, despair, and finally madness.  Donizetti called this work, “the opera of emotions.”

 

Note: For pdf version, click here: Roberto Devereux PDF

On The Town

Authors, Eugene Toth, Miscellaneous, Society

by Eugene Toth, August 16, 2015

The Broadway play “On the Town” tells the story of three Navy sailors who found the loves of their lives in New York while they had 24 hours to explore the city.   Playful Chip wanted to see the sights.  Innocent Gabey wanted to enjoy a day.  Amorous Ozzie wanted to find a love in one night.

Their adventure started in the subway.  The three sailors saw a poster of the “Miss Turnstile” contest winner, the most beautiful woman who took the subway.  The moment he saw her picture, Gabey loved Ivy.  He searched for her in the places which the description under  the poster said she loved to go to.  Gabey found Ivy in Carnagie Hall.  There she practiced singing with her insane Russian singing tutor.  Ivy agreed to a date with Gabey.

1-Megan-Fairchild-and-Jackie-Hoffman-in-Broadways-ON-THE-TOWN-Photo-by-Joan-Marcus

In the middle of the city, Chip found Hildy, a plump taxi driver, trying to find a man.  Hildy immediately fell in love with Chip.  She took him to her apartment.

Ozzie found Claire de Lune, an anthropologist engaged to an indulgent fiancé.  Claire de Lune took Ozzie to her apartment, where she and her finance celebrated  before they announced their engagement at Diamond Eddie’s, an erotic club.  Whenever Claire’s husband caught Claire kissing and embracing Ozzie, Claire’s fiancé would sing “I understand.”

Screen Shot 2015-08-16 at 12.19.13 PMThe three sailors caroused in bars and clubs.  They loved their women.   Finally, in the morning, all bid each other goodbye.

 

“On the Town” portrays New York’s amazing diversity—a hedonist, Claire de Lune, an innocent classical artist, Ivy, the love-driven woman, Hildy.

The sounds of New York excite and stimulate us.  At Coney Island, we hear a circus theme.  The music conveys a circus of love and fun.

“On the Town” tells some jokes.  When the couples are riding the subway to Coney Island, Hildy, the taxi driver woman observed there were only 192 more stops until Coney Island.

Periodically, two women pass by, talking about one of the woman’s bosses. Each time they are more drunk than before.  With ridiculous Brooklyn accents, they gossip.

Woman 1:          So what did you say?

Woman 2:          So I said, I may be your secretary Mr. Gadolfin, but I can’t go that far.

Woman 1:          So what did he say?

Woman 2:          So I said, I cannot do that to Mrs. Gadolfin and all those other little Gadolfins.  So I just handed in my resignation and left the office. 

Woman 2:          Now lets get a beer and we can talk about things!

For enduring reasons, Broadway producers for decades have revived “On the Town.”  Two and a half hours of comedy highlight New York’s hilarity.  Three gamboling sailors show us New York’s fun and humor.

Giselle at the 75th Anniversary of ABT

Authors, Eugene Toth, Miscellaneous, Society

by Eugene Toth

Hiding his cape, hunting horn, and sword of a lord, Count Albrecht persuaded Giselle, a country girl, to love him.  Bursting on the scene, the hunter Hilarion showed Giselle the engraved sword of Albrecht.  Learning that Albrecht lied to her, Giselle lost her mind.  She died of a broken heart.

The Wilis

Wilis are ghosts of women who died of unrequited love.  Myrta, the queen of the wilis summoned them to initiate Giselle into their sisterhood.  Beside Giselle’s grave, eighteen wilis danced Hilarion, the hunter who loved Giselle and buried her, to death .

Below:Giselle protects Count Albrecht from the wilis.

www.metopera.org/_uploaded/image/spotlight/giselle2.jpg

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Myrta, queen of the wilis, condemned Count Albrecht to dance to death.  As a wili, Giselle protected Albrecht. She danced with him until four o’clock when wilis lose their power.  In a memorable scene, Russian dancer Vladimir Shklyarov, as Albrecht, vaulted into the air an amazing 36 times.

Love, death, and dancing

Dancing to the limits of endurance sets Giselle apart from other ballets. The essence of Giselle, extreme dancing, gives to this ballet authenticity.  Giselle is not a performance.  In Giselle, we see something realistic, dancing to the limits.

As a tale of dancing to death with the wilis, Giselle’s libretto by Theophile Gautier adds to the ballet’s success.  According to the playbill, Giselle is the oldest continually performed ballet. On May 23, 2015, the 75th Anniversary of the founding of American Ballet Theatre, the crowd glittered with stars.  Giselle suits the tastes of ballet’s professionals.  On her last dance as a principal dancer for ABT, Paloma Herrera on May 27, 2015 will dance Giselle.

To dance Giselle explores the limits of dancing.  By its single minded focus on ultimate dancing, Giselle has won success.  ABT’s performance proved Giselle’s power as one of the greatest ballets of all time.

Les Contes d’Hoffman, an evening with Offenbach

Authors, Blog, Eugene Toth, Society

by Eugene Toth

On February 28, 2015 the Metropolitan Opera presented Les Contes d’Hoffman, three short and striking operas by the composer Jacques Offenbach.

In 1819 Jacques Offenbach was born the son of a synagogue cantor in Cologne, Germany. The young Offenbach began his career as a virtuoso cellist. Until that time, most composers wrote long and complicated operas lasting several hours. Offenbach pioneered short operas, simple and easy to understand. He broadened the appeal of opera. Offenbach grew so famous that the Emperor Napoleon offered him French citizenship.